The scalp

The scalp

The scalp
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The scalp is the skin that covers the skull of the human being and that has hair.1 It is different from the other skins for the reason that under this skin there is a very vascularized structure, formed by a huge branching of blood vessels and that It is responsible for the large hemorrhages that cause the wounds that occur here.

This fine, fragile and highly vascularized tissue is called aponeurotic galea. The wounds in this place must necessarily be sutured to avoid bruising.

The outermost of its five layers is in which dandruff occurs.


The scalp is made up of skin (usually, with hair) and subcutaneous tissue. It covers the shell from the upper nuchal lines of the occipital bone to the supraorbital edges of the frontal bone. The scalp extends laterally over the temporal facia to the zygomatic arches. Anatomically, the scalp is considered a unique structure, independent of the skin. It is formed by four layers that are:

Skin: the thickness of the epidermis and dermis varies between 3 and 8 mm.
Epicranium and aponeurotic galea: the occipal and frontal muscles are connected at the vertex of the skull by the so-called aponeurotic galea, which constitutes the strongest and strongest scalp blade and is also responsible for the low possibility of distension.
Subepicranium (subgaleal plane or Merkel space): It is the space between the galea and the epicranium occupied by a thin and straight tissue with few blood vessels. Its laxity allows the mobility of the upper layers.
Pericranial: It is the deep stratum, intimately adhered to the outer table of the skull.


It is a keratinized filament that emerges from the hair follicle. It is formed by dead cells due to the formation of keratin. Its growth is due to the rapid production of cells inside the matrix. All skin is hairy, except that of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Hair follicle
Main article: Hair follicle

It is an epidermal bag, at the base of which is the bulb, likewise at the base is the papilla. This follicle has two layers, epidermal and dermal, the same that is well vascularized and innervated. Also in the neck of the hair follicle the hair muscle of the scalp is inserted whose function is to raise the hair.

The main circulation is based on the external carotid artery through three branches.

Superficial temporal artery
Occipital artery
Posterior atrial artery.

The frontal area of ​​the scalp is irrigated by two other arteries, dependent on the internal carotid that are the supratrochlear artery, and supraorbital.

The venous irrigation that accompanies the arterial roots empties into the external jugular, and the frontal and supraorbital veins drain into the ophthalmic veins and then into the cavernous sinus.

The frontal sensory innervation, 2 is provided by the branches of the internal frontal nerve and two branches of the supraorbital nerve that come from the ophthalmic middle nerve, trigeminal branch. The malar nerve innervates the temporal zone by the temporal zygomatic branch, also of the trigeminal. The trigeminal branch auriculotemporal nerve innervates the parietal zone.Finally there is the major occipital nerve that is the posterior root of the second Cervical root of the brachial plexus that provides the motor innervation of the deep neck and sensory muscles over the area occipital. The latter gives rise to the well-known Arnold neuralgia. All nerves of the scalp go through the dense area of ​​the superficial facia, between the shell and the overlying teguments.

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Although hairdressing and aesthetics are different services that can be carried out in specific centers, the premises that offer both activities are usual, providing an integral service. A hairdressing salon is a place where aesthetic services related to hair care are offered, mainly haircutting and combing, while in a beauty or aesthetic salon, services related to the care of the image are provided.


Those are two different activities that can be provided in specialized centers, it is increasingly common the existence of establishments that offer services of both activities, presenting a comprehensive service offer.

Hairdressing: we can define hairdressing as the establishment in which aesthetic services related to hair care are provided, consisting of washing, cutting, combing, dyeing, waving and similar activities in hair, performed by hairdressers. Additionally, some hairdressers can offer complementary services of aesthetics, such as depilating, manicure or pedicure, among others, in addition to the sale of related products, such as hair products or articles of perfumery and aesthetics. Generally, in the hairdressers for men, in addition to the hairdressing service shaving service is offered, in which case they are also called barbershops, being the professional that the barber makes it.
Aesthetics: a beauty salon, also called beauty center, beauty or aesthetic institute, is an establishment in which services related to the care of the image are provided. In this type of commercial establishments, clients are usually offered all kinds of beauty treatments, performed by beauticians, such as hairdressing service, skin health services, facial aesthetics, hand and foot care, aromatherapy, mud baths , hair removal centers, tattoo and piercing studios, nail treatment and many other services. An aesthetic center can offer several services related to the image and beauty, or be specialized in one of them. In addition, aesthetics can be a differentiated business or a complementary service to other activities, since other centers such as hairdressers, gyms, specialized shops in perfumery and cosmetics or tanning centers, often offer beauty treatments.
Currently, hairdressing and aesthetics can be found in differentiated establishments with specialized professionals, as well as in establishments that incorporate various services of both activities together, for example, coupling aesthetics to hairdressing, which allows the client to offer a complete service.


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