The scalp

The scalp

The scalp

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The scalp is the skin that covers the skull of the human being and that has hair.1 It is different from the other skins for the reason that under this skin there is a very vascularized structure, formed by a huge branching of blood vessels and that It is responsible for the large hemorrhages that cause the wounds that occur here.

This fine, fragile and highly vascularized tissue is called aponeurotic galea. The wounds in this place must necessarily be sutured to avoid bruising.

The outermost of its five layers is in which dandruff occurs.

Anatomy

The scalp is made up of skin (usually, with hair) and subcutaneous tissue. It covers the shell from the upper nuchal lines of the occipital bone to the supraorbital edges of the frontal bone. The scalp extends laterally over the temporal facia to the zygomatic arches. Anatomically, the scalp is considered a unique structure, independent of the skin. It is formed by four layers that are:

Skin: the thickness of the epidermis and dermis varies between 3 and 8 mm.
Epicranium and aponeurotic galea: the occipal and frontal muscles are connected at the vertex of the skull by the so-called aponeurotic galea, which constitutes the strongest and strongest scalp blade and is also responsible for the low possibility of distension.
Subepicranium (subgaleal plane or Merkel space): It is the space between the galea and the epicranium occupied by a thin and straight tissue with few blood vessels. Its laxity allows the mobility of the upper layers.
Pericranial: It is the deep stratum, intimately adhered to the outer table of the skull.

Hair

It is a keratinized filament that emerges from the hair follicle. It is formed by dead cells due to the formation of keratin. Its growth is due to the rapid production of cells inside the matrix. All skin is hairy, except that of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Hair follicle
Main article: Hair follicle

It is an epidermal bag, at the base of which is the bulb, likewise at the base is the papilla. This follicle has two layers, epidermal and dermal, the same that is well vascularized and innervated. Also in the neck of the hair follicle the hair muscle of the scalp is inserted whose function is to raise the hair.
Irrigation

The main circulation is based on the external carotid artery through three branches.

Superficial temporal artery
Occipital artery
Posterior atrial artery.

The frontal area of ​​the scalp is irrigated by two other arteries, dependent on the internal carotid that are the supratrochlear artery, and supraorbital.

The venous irrigation that accompanies the arterial roots empties into the external jugular, and the frontal and supraorbital veins drain into the ophthalmic veins and then into the cavernous sinus.

The frontal sensory innervation, 2 is provided by the branches of the internal frontal nerve and two branches of the supraorbital nerve that come from the ophthalmic middle nerve, trigeminal branch. The malar nerve innervates the temporal zone by the temporal zygomatic branch, also of the trigeminal. The trigeminal branch auriculotemporal nerve innervates the parietal zone.Finally there is the major occipital nerve that is the posterior root of the second Cervical root of the brachial plexus that provides the motor innervation of the deep neck and sensory muscles over the area occipital. The latter gives rise to the well-known Arnold neuralgia. All nerves of the scalp go through the dense area of ​​the superficial facia, between the shell and the overlying teguments.

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Hair dyes that will be trend in 2019

10 hair dyes that will be trend in 2019



Here are the new hair colors that will be fashionable and include coral tones, contouring balayage and gray with matt finishes.In general, we are going to see smooth color transitions and you will go from dark to very light colors.

The pink / coral will look in subdued gradients starting from the chestnut tree from the root. The bleached strands will not go from medium to light, but they will change their tone continuously.

The platinum dye returns, last year we saw it in a washed-out finish in media, but in 2019 it will be quite uniform. The only part where this color change will be noticed will be very close to the root.

Strong cobrizos with lighter sparkles to give the sensation of a fresh and youthful mane.

Combinations of dark brown, medium blond, ash and discoloration in lilac color only in a few strands with a faded finish.

The ombré from black to silver, passing through intermediate gray.

Balayage in matt finish. This one in particular plays with ash-brown and blond-platinum tones.

Tufted tresses. Choose dark tones and contrast with blond or silver tones.

The perfect care for your hair according to your tone

It was time to have an intense ombré, go for this in shades of chocolate to blond in an intermediate range.

As for dark manes, the most in will be to take it in a tone almost jet and have reflections in coppery tone.

You will see it until the fatigue, the coral will also come mixed with orange and pink shades. The challenge is that you do not notice the difference.

 

Source ; Internet M S N

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Hair dyeing

Hair dyeing

Hair dyeing

Hair dyeing is the procedure to change the hair color. Among the usual reasons for wanting to change color are covering gray hair or gray hair, changing to a color that is considered more fashionable or desirable, and restoring the original hair color after having been bleached by hairdressing or discoloration processes. induced by the action of solar rays.

Hair dye, or hair dye, is a chemical preparation that is used to change the color of a person’s hair. Hair dye is used to cover gray hair since gray hair is a sign of advanced age. Young people can dye their hair as a way to go fashion or simply because they want to do it to change their appearance.

It is known that the Romans were interested in altering the hair color and from the available historical information it is known that they had created about a hundred recipes that used natural ingredients. These preparations only allowed to darken the hair. During the Renaissance, the blonde was a popular choice because he was considered angelic and attractive.

In 1907, Eugene Schueller, the founder of the company L’Oreal, created the first synthetic dye for hair, but did not have much sales success

Types of hair dyeing

The four most common types of hair dyeing are “temporary”, “semi-permanent”, “demi-permanent” and “permanent”.

Temporary hair coloring

Temporary hair coloring can be obtained by various techniques and methods that include rinses, shampoos, gels, sprays and foams. Temporary hair color is usually brighter and more vibrant than permanent or semi-permanent hair colorations. It is usually used to color the hair for special occasions such as costume or Halloween dances.

The pigment molecules in the temporary tinctures are large and do not penetrate the hair cuticle layer. The colored particles remain absorbed (adhered) to the hair and are easily extracted by a single wash. Typically it lasts between a few hours to a day.

Temporary hair dyeing can be maintained on hairs that are excessively dry or that are damaged in such a way that the pigment can penetrate into the hair.

Semi-permanent hair coloring

The dyeing for semi-permanent hair dyeing has molecules of smaller size than the temporary dye, and therefore manages to penetrate partially the body of the hair. Therefore, the color supports several washes, typically 4 to 5 shampoos or a few weeks. Some semi-permanent dyes may contain very low amounts of developer, peroxide or ammonia, and therefore are safer for damaged or brittle hair. However, semi-permanent dyes may contain certain toxic compounds such as the p-phenylenediamine compound or other similar ingredients.

The final color of each strand of hair will depend on its original color and porosity, so there will be faint variations of color in different areas of the head. This gives a more natural appearance than a homogeneous color typical of a permanent color. However, it also means that white or gray hair will not be dyed with the same tone as the rest of the hair. If there are only a few gray or white hairs, the effect will be enough to mimic them, but if the proportion of gray hair is considerable, there comes a point from which they can not be camouflaged.

In these circumstances, it is possible to delay the need to resort to permanent dyes if semi-permanent colors are used as a base and reflections are added.

The semi-permanent color does not allow to lighten the hair.

Demi-permanent hair coloring

The dye for demi-permanent hair dyeing is a permanent hair dye that contains an alkaline agent that is not ammonia (for example ethanolamine, or sodium carbonate) and, although it is always used with a developer liquid, the concentration of peroxide of hydrogen in that developer may be less than that used with permanent dyes.

Source: Wikipedia

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