The scalp

The scalp

The scalp

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The scalp is the skin that covers the skull of the human being and that has hair.1 It is different from the other skins for the reason that under this skin there is a very vascularized structure, formed by a huge branching of blood vessels and that It is responsible for the large hemorrhages that cause the wounds that occur here.

This fine, fragile and highly vascularized tissue is called aponeurotic galea. The wounds in this place must necessarily be sutured to avoid bruising.

The outermost of its five layers is in which dandruff occurs.

Anatomy

The scalp is made up of skin (usually, with hair) and subcutaneous tissue. It covers the shell from the upper nuchal lines of the occipital bone to the supraorbital edges of the frontal bone. The scalp extends laterally over the temporal facia to the zygomatic arches. Anatomically, the scalp is considered a unique structure, independent of the skin. It is formed by four layers that are:

Skin: the thickness of the epidermis and dermis varies between 3 and 8 mm.
Epicranium and aponeurotic galea: the occipal and frontal muscles are connected at the vertex of the skull by the so-called aponeurotic galea, which constitutes the strongest and strongest scalp blade and is also responsible for the low possibility of distension.
Subepicranium (subgaleal plane or Merkel space): It is the space between the galea and the epicranium occupied by a thin and straight tissue with few blood vessels. Its laxity allows the mobility of the upper layers.
Pericranial: It is the deep stratum, intimately adhered to the outer table of the skull.

Hair

It is a keratinized filament that emerges from the hair follicle. It is formed by dead cells due to the formation of keratin. Its growth is due to the rapid production of cells inside the matrix. All skin is hairy, except that of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Hair follicle
Main article: Hair follicle

It is an epidermal bag, at the base of which is the bulb, likewise at the base is the papilla. This follicle has two layers, epidermal and dermal, the same that is well vascularized and innervated. Also in the neck of the hair follicle the hair muscle of the scalp is inserted whose function is to raise the hair.
Irrigation

The main circulation is based on the external carotid artery through three branches.

Superficial temporal artery
Occipital artery
Posterior atrial artery.

The frontal area of ​​the scalp is irrigated by two other arteries, dependent on the internal carotid that are the supratrochlear artery, and supraorbital.

The venous irrigation that accompanies the arterial roots empties into the external jugular, and the frontal and supraorbital veins drain into the ophthalmic veins and then into the cavernous sinus.

The frontal sensory innervation, 2 is provided by the branches of the internal frontal nerve and two branches of the supraorbital nerve that come from the ophthalmic middle nerve, trigeminal branch. The malar nerve innervates the temporal zone by the temporal zygomatic branch, also of the trigeminal. The trigeminal branch auriculotemporal nerve innervates the parietal zone.Finally there is the major occipital nerve that is the posterior root of the second Cervical root of the brachial plexus that provides the motor innervation of the deep neck and sensory muscles over the area occipital. The latter gives rise to the well-known Arnold neuralgia. All nerves of the scalp go through the dense area of ​​the superficial facia, between the shell and the overlying teguments.

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Hair dyeing

Hair dyeing

Hair dyeing

Hair dyeing is the procedure to change the hair color. Among the usual reasons for wanting to change color are covering gray hair or gray hair, changing to a color that is considered more fashionable or desirable, and restoring the original hair color after having been bleached by hairdressing or discoloration processes. induced by the action of solar rays.

Hair dye, or hair dye, is a chemical preparation that is used to change the color of a person’s hair. Hair dye is used to cover gray hair since gray hair is a sign of advanced age. Young people can dye their hair as a way to go fashion or simply because they want to do it to change their appearance.

It is known that the Romans were interested in altering the hair color and from the available historical information it is known that they had created about a hundred recipes that used natural ingredients. These preparations only allowed to darken the hair. During the Renaissance, the blonde was a popular choice because he was considered angelic and attractive.

In 1907, Eugene Schueller, the founder of the company L’Oreal, created the first synthetic dye for hair, but did not have much sales success

Types of hair dyeing

The four most common types of hair dyeing are “temporary”, “semi-permanent”, “demi-permanent” and “permanent”.

Temporary hair coloring

Temporary hair coloring can be obtained by various techniques and methods that include rinses, shampoos, gels, sprays and foams. Temporary hair color is usually brighter and more vibrant than permanent or semi-permanent hair colorations. It is usually used to color the hair for special occasions such as costume or Halloween dances.

The pigment molecules in the temporary tinctures are large and do not penetrate the hair cuticle layer. The colored particles remain absorbed (adhered) to the hair and are easily extracted by a single wash. Typically it lasts between a few hours to a day.

Temporary hair dyeing can be maintained on hairs that are excessively dry or that are damaged in such a way that the pigment can penetrate into the hair.

Semi-permanent hair coloring

The dyeing for semi-permanent hair dyeing has molecules of smaller size than the temporary dye, and therefore manages to penetrate partially the body of the hair. Therefore, the color supports several washes, typically 4 to 5 shampoos or a few weeks. Some semi-permanent dyes may contain very low amounts of developer, peroxide or ammonia, and therefore are safer for damaged or brittle hair. However, semi-permanent dyes may contain certain toxic compounds such as the p-phenylenediamine compound or other similar ingredients.

The final color of each strand of hair will depend on its original color and porosity, so there will be faint variations of color in different areas of the head. This gives a more natural appearance than a homogeneous color typical of a permanent color. However, it also means that white or gray hair will not be dyed with the same tone as the rest of the hair. If there are only a few gray or white hairs, the effect will be enough to mimic them, but if the proportion of gray hair is considerable, there comes a point from which they can not be camouflaged.

In these circumstances, it is possible to delay the need to resort to permanent dyes if semi-permanent colors are used as a base and reflections are added.

The semi-permanent color does not allow to lighten the hair.

Demi-permanent hair coloring

The dye for demi-permanent hair dyeing is a permanent hair dye that contains an alkaline agent that is not ammonia (for example ethanolamine, or sodium carbonate) and, although it is always used with a developer liquid, the concentration of peroxide of hydrogen in that developer may be less than that used with permanent dyes.

Source: Wikipedia

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HairStyle

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Hairstyle

Best hair style

Hairstyle or hair style is the way to cut or trim your hair. Unlike other animals, humans from many cultures cut their hair, instead of letting it grow naturally. Hair styles are often used as a sign of cultural, social or ethnic identity and may reflect social status and individuality. Men and women naturally have the same hair, in which keratin is their main component. Keratin is a protein formed by a long chain of amino acids. Generally, hair styles conform to cultural influences assigned to men and women. Fashion trends can also have a great influence on the person.

Hair Style Florida

Examples:

The pixie cut (English: pixie cut) is a feminine hairstyle of remarkably short length. The hairstyle has a considerably short length on the forehead and the back of the head, showing a regularly short fringe that does not exceed the height of the eyebrows. In some occasions, the hairstyle usually increases in length in the upper area of ​​the skull. The pixie cut is a female adaptation of short hair that became popular in the 1950s.

The feathered hairstyle (in Spanish: feathered) is a type of female hairstyle that is characterized by a wavy texture that allows the formation of waves that extend to the outside of the face in the form of wings, giving the hair a greater volume. The hairstyle is formed with a graduated or layered cut that allows the segmentation of the hair, in addition to presenting a length that does not exceed the height of the shoulders. The feathered hairstyle was popular in the 1970s.

Bangle is a section of hair that is born from the hairline, which is cut or combed in such a way that it covers all or part of the wearer’s forehead.30 The fringe is usually a component of various hairstyles, besides being frequently used as a visual affection to reduce various facial features such as elongated faces and broad forehead.

Source Wikipedia

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Hairdressing

Hairdressing

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Although hairdressing and aesthetics are different services that can be carried out in specific centers, the premises that offer both activities are usual, providing an integral service. A hairdressing salon is a place where aesthetic services related to hair care are offered, mainly haircutting and combing, while in a beauty or aesthetic salon, services related to the care of the image are provided.

 

Those are two different activities that can be provided in specialized centers, it is increasingly common the existence of establishments that offer services of both activities, presenting a comprehensive service offer.

Hairdressing: we can define hairdressing as the establishment in which aesthetic services related to hair care are provided, consisting of washing, cutting, combing, dyeing, waving and similar activities in hair, performed by hairdressers. Additionally, some hairdressers can offer complementary services of aesthetics, such as depilating, manicure or pedicure, among others, in addition to the sale of related products, such as hair products or articles of perfumery and aesthetics. Generally, in the hairdressers for men, in addition to the hairdressing service shaving service is offered, in which case they are also called barbershops, being the professional that the barber makes it.
Aesthetics: a beauty salon, also called beauty center, beauty or aesthetic institute, is an establishment in which services related to the care of the image are provided. In this type of commercial establishments, clients are usually offered all kinds of beauty treatments, performed by beauticians, such as hairdressing service, skin health services, facial aesthetics, hand and foot care, aromatherapy, mud baths , hair removal centers, tattoo and piercing studios, nail treatment and many other services. An aesthetic center can offer several services related to the image and beauty, or be specialized in one of them. In addition, aesthetics can be a differentiated business or a complementary service to other activities, since other centers such as hairdressers, gyms, specialized shops in perfumery and cosmetics or tanning centers, often offer beauty treatments.
Currently, hairdressing and aesthetics can be found in differentiated establishments with specialized professionals, as well as in establishments that incorporate various services of both activities together, for example, coupling aesthetics to hairdressing, which allows the client to offer a complete service.

 

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